Induced pluripotent stem cells also known as iPS cells or iPSCs are a type of pluripotent stem cell that can be generated directly from a somatic cell. Pluripotent stem cells hold promise in the field of regenerative medicine. The most well-known type of pluripotent stem cell is the embryonic stem cell. However, since the generation of embryonic stem cells involves destruction or at least manipulation  of the pre-implantation stage embryo, there has been much controversy surrounding their use.
Further, because embryonic stem cells can only be derived from embryos, it has so far not been feasible to create patient-matched embryonic stem cell lines. Since iPSCs can be derived directly from adult tissues, they not only bypass the need for embryos, but can be made in a patient-matched manner, which means that each individual could have their own pluripotent stem cell line. These unlimited supplies of autologous cells could be used to generate transplants without the risk of immune rejection.
While the iPSC technology has not yet advanced to a stage where therapeutic transplants have been deemed safe, iPSCs are readily being used in personalized drug discovery efforts and understanding the patient-specific basis of disease. Yamanaka named iPSCs with a lower case "i" due to the popularity of the iPod and other products. The original set of reprogramming factors also dubbed Yamanaka factors are the transcription factors Oct4 Pou5f1Sox2cMycand Klf4.
While this combination is most conventional in producing iPSCs, each of the factors can be functionally replaced by related transcription factors, miRNAssmall molecules, or even non-related genes such as lineage specifiers. However, considerable advances have been made in improving the efficiency and the time it takes to obtain iPSCs. Upon introduction of reprogramming factors, cells begin to form colonies that resemble pluripotent stem cells, which can be isolated based on their morphology, conditions that select for their growth, or through expression of surface markers or reporter genes.
Induced pluripotent stem cells were first generated by Shinya Yamanaka 's team at Kyoto UniversityJapan, in They chose twenty-four genes previously identified as important in ESCs and used retroviruses to deliver these genes to mouse fibroblasts.
The fibroblasts were engineered so that any cells reactivating the ESC-specific gene, Fbx15could be isolated using antibiotic selection. Upon delivery of all twenty-four factors, ESC-like colonies emerged that reactivated the Fbx15 reporter and could propagate indefinitely. To identify the genes necessary for reprogramming, the researchers removed one factor at a time from the pool of twenty-four.
By this process, they identified four factors, Oct4, Sox2, cMyc, and Klf4, which were each necessary and together sufficient to generate ESC-like colonies under selection for reactivation of Fbx Unlike the first generation of iPSCs, these second generation iPSCs produced viable chimeric mice and contributed to the mouse germline, thereby achieving the 'gold standard' for pluripotent stem cells. These second-generation iPSCs were derived from mouse fibroblasts by retroviral-mediated expression of the same four transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, cMyc, Klf4.
However, instead of using Fbx15 to select for pluripotent cells, the researchers used Nanoga gene that is functionally important in ESCs. With the same principle used in mouse reprogramming, Yamanaka's group successfully transformed human fibroblasts into iPSCs with the same four pivotal genes, Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and cMyc, using a retroviral system,  while Thomson and colleagues used a different set of factors, Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, and Lin28, using a lentiviral system.
Obtaining fibroblasts to produce iPSCs involves a skin biopsy, and there has been a push towards identifying cell types that are more easily accessible. Other considerations for starting cell type include mutational load for example, skin cells may harbor more mutations due to UV exposure  time it takes to expand the population of starting cells,  and the ability to differentiate into a given cell type.
The generation of iPS cells is crucially dependent on the transcription factors used for the induction. Additional genes, however, including certain members of the Klf family Klf1, Klf2, Klf4, and Klf5the Myc family c-myc, L-myc, and N-mycNanogand LIN28have been identified to increase the induction efficiency.
Although the methods pioneered by Yamanaka and others have demonstrated that adult cells can be reprogrammed to iPS cells, there are still challenges associated with this technology:. The table on the right summarizes the key strategies and techniques used to develop iPS cells in the first five years after Yamanaka et al. Rows of similar colors represent studies that used similar strategies for reprogramming. One of the main strategies for avoiding problems 1 and 2 has been to use small molecules that can mimic the effects of transcription factors.
These compounds can compensate for a reprogramming factor that does not effectively target the genome or fails at reprogramming for another reason; thus they raise reprogramming efficiency. They also avoid the problem of genomic integration, which in some cases contributes to tumor genesis.
Key studies using such strategy were conducted in Having the best gaming mouse can mean the difference between victory and defeat. Some gaming mice are small and sleek, prioritizing speed over all other considerations. Others are large and full of extra bells and whistles, letting you customize the perfect fit and weight for your hand.
Manufacturers also produce a variety of wireless gaming mice, in case your desktop is getting a little tangled. While the best gaming mouse for you largely depends upon your physical setup and gaming habits, I can make a few broad recommendations. For right-handed users who want an ergonomic grip and a premium sensor, the G is an incredibly easy recommendation. Because the device comes from Logitech, it should last for years and years. There are terrible, second-rate knock-off mice on Amazon that routinely retail for more than that.
But the Rival 3 is the real deal, featuring a smart, semi-ambidextrous design and an ultra-lightweight design that can benefit esports players in particular. There are a few other mice worth considering on this list, but one of my personal favorites is the Corsair Harpoon RGB Wireless. This large, ergonomic, customizable mouse gets just about everything right, from physical design to software options to optional features. While the G has been around for quite a few years, Logitech has given it some subtle redesigns.
And yet, the Rival 3 features the same superlative Danish engineering and robust software as other SteelSeries mice. The biggest selling point of the Rival 3, however, is its incredibly light weight: 2.
SteelSeries claims that this feature can help esports players, who rely on subtle twitches and quick wrist motions to dominate the competition. Read our full SteelSeries Rival 3 review. This mouse features an ergonomic design with textured grips, a deep software suite and flawless wireless functionality. With all the lights turned off and the mouse in Bluetooth mode, you can get up to 60 hours of battery life. Even with all the bells and whistles powered up, the mouse can last for a few days of heavy gaming, and you can recharge via USB while you play.
This small strip of metal is much easier to find, and much more convenient to click down, than a sniper button. The Razer Synapse software is robust, although it may take a few days to learn all of the options at your disposal. Read our full Razer Basilisk V2 review. It all depends upon your configuration. The button configuration is incredibly useful for World of Warcraft, Final Fantasy XIV and other MMO favorites, but the other two side panels ensure that you can use the Naga Trinity with just about any genre and still excel.
Read our full Razer Naga Trinity review. Design is probably the single most important consideration for a mouse. Ultimately, the best gaming mouse is the mouse that feels most comfortable in your hand; everything else really is secondary.
As such, you should see if you can hold a mouse before you commit to buying it.Choosing the best gaming mouse is the key to unlocking your true competitive potential.
You've got all the power of your PC just sitting there, and you need a suitably speedy rodent to make sure none of it goes to waste. There are heaps of options for you to pick from—nearly one for every genre—and we've taken as many as we can for a test drive to whittle these vast collections down to just a sacred few. Gaming mice aren't just aesthetically different from your average office mouse.
Their sensors are designed to be more responsive and more accurate, with little to no smoothing or acceleration throwing off your aim. And they're usually designed with nicely positioned buttons better for gaming keybinds than a traditional mouse.
Your hands deserve the best gaming mouse alongside the best gaming keyboardwhich means you need to find a mouse that's comfortable: the right size, shape and weight for your hand.
There are plenty of ambidextrous gaming mice and ones built for lefties, too, if that's more your speed. In the last few years most gaming mice have adopted very accurate, high CPI also called DPI sensors, so even a budget mouse will likely give you great performance in any game you play.
Most of these sensors are capable of extremely high CPI counts like 12, or more, when realistically you'll play on a much lower sensitivity under 2, Don't worry about that number too much—instead, consider the shape and weight of your ideal gaming mouse.
Pro gamers generally recommend lighter, simpler mice, with few buttons to get in your way. Lighter mice won't fatigue your wrist and are easy to skate across a mousepad at high speeds.
Induced pluripotent stem cell
Below grams is ideal for lightweight mice. But if you prefer a heavy mouse, we have some recommendations for those, too—some inadvertent. We've tested a load of the best gaming mice and listed our favourites below. There are also a couple wireless options, though we have more detailed recommendations in our selection of the best wireless gaming mice.
And yes, these days, they perform just as well as the corded ones on this list. Despite years of iterations, Razer never messes with the Deathadder's shape. There's no reason to. The Deathadder Elite uses a 16, CPI optical sensor, but big numbers don't necessarily mean quality. Razer's implementation should deliver flawless tracking, even if you move the mouse as fast as you can. For the majority of games and gamers, the Deathadder Elite is an amazing mouse.
With this mouse you get Logitech's fantastic, reliable build quality, good gaming driver software, and a tried-and-true mouse shape. Since its popular Gs years ago, Logitech has released several mice with a nearly identical small, almost-ambidextrous body, and it remains a comfortable mouse great for the active grip of FPS or MOBA players.
And the G is damn cheap. The G Prodigy doesn't use Logitech's top-end sensor, but testing has shown that the Mercury sensor developed by Logitech in this mouse is so good, you probably won't notice the difference. It supports up to CPI and has no issue with jitter or acceleration.
Unless you need insanely high CPI settings, the G is a killer mouse for a budget price. And if you decide you really like the shape and can spend a bit more, consider a step up to the Logitech Prowhich does include that top-of-the-line sensor. The Ironclaw is the best mouse we've tested for gamers with larger hands. While its design encompasses a strange blend of materials, from smooth matte plastic on the buttons to the diamond print, grippy rubber sides, to the unique, wavy rubber on the scroll wheel, each conforms well to its function on the mouse.
Instead of a single cohesive material, Corsair has designated one to suit each panel individually, which adds to the excellent overall fit of the mouse to make it feel really cozy gliding over your mouse pad. It's domed and curved fit perfectly in the palm of right-handed gamers, and is one of the best feeling mice to grip I've ever tested.
It does feel a bit weighty, particularly for a wireless mouse that doesn't require a discrete battery, and unfortunately doesn't offer customizable weights. While that means the Ironclaw feels just a hair more cumbersome than other, lighter wired mice, it also makes the mouse feel more significant and substantial.
The RGB lighting is slick and understated, exactly the way I like it, and the unit can be fully customized through Corsair's iCue software, including the option to calibrate your mouse to the surface on which you're using it.There is a lot of mis information floating around the web about what's important when shopping for a mouse. The goal of this page is to give you an intuitive understanding of the various factors regarding mice.
Good mice don't have to cost an arm and a dick. If you're on a tighter budget the Nixeus Revel is the cheapest mouse you can buy with a sensor. There are a few ways to think about CPI, if you Google it you'll get something along the lines of "the number of steps the sensor will report after moving one linear inch". I think a more intuitive way to think about it is by looking at the extremes. If we have a mouse with 1 CPI that means we will have to move the mouse an entire inch before a single movement step is sent to the computer.
In other words, CPI is the measure of the minimum physical movement of the mouse which will be sent to the computer. You can test this yourself by plugging in a mouse that can be set to CPI or lower and very gently moving it.
You will notice the discrete steps the cursor takes. A higher CPI means a more accurate representation of the movement will be reported to the computer. A rough estimate for the maximum useful CPI is to look at this extreme example: 4k aka p resolution width is pixels, combine this with a 3D game which defaults you to 60 degrees field of view borderlands 1? Generally speaking, anything above that will not provide a benefit to you. This section is about the USB polling rate, not the sensor refresh rate.
I have yet to see a sensor which has a refresh rate slower than the USB polling rate. If there is a limitation it generally comes from the Microcontroller.
This is only part of the sensor section because it's often associated with the sensor. The polling rate is the rate at which your computer asks your mouse to send an update. I am not a fan of this definition because it doesn't give you an intuitive concept around the consequences of low polling rates, for that we'll conduct a little thought experiment in the next paragraph. An easy way to think about the polling rate is by looking at it as the maximum variance in response time.
We will start our thought experiment with two identical mice with differing polling rates: a 1Hz mouse, and a Hz mouse. If we move both mice one inch on the mouse pad, will they move the same distance on the screen? Yes, they will - even though one is polled once per millisecond and the other is polled once per second, the total distance reported by the mouse will be the same.
The real question is: How long will it take for the 1Hz mouse to complete the motion?
EIZO MONITOR TEST
The answer is very interesting: it's possible that the 1Hz mouse actually ends up moving the cursor the total distance more quickly than the Hz mouse. How is that possible? If the 1Hz mouse sends an update and then In that exact scenario the Hz mouse is slower to respond than the 1Hz mouse.
This example is ridiculous, but it helps you understand an important consequence of polling rates: The higher the polling rate, the lower the variance of the response time, and therefore the higher the predictability.
One very interesting subtlety of mouse polling rates has to do with monitor refresh rates. In the worst case you move the mouse right after a mouse refresh, which then takes 8ms for the next refresh. The monitor then refreshes just before the mouse information is processed so you have to wait an additional 17ms for the monitor to refresh, and finally after 25ms you see the cursor move.
So the variance of this setup is between 0 and 25ms.You seem to have CSS turned off. Please don't fill out this field. Mouse Test Web Site.
I'm sure what exactly this is for but did not attend my needs I just want something that tells me all buttons on the mouse are working. Sure this one helps with drag and scrolling but that is about all I could do This also has no need to have a installer: a simple unzip would do.
Please provide the ad click URL, if possible:. Help Create Join Login. Operations Management. IT Management. Project Management. Services Business VoIP. Resources Blog Articles Deals. Menu Help Create Join Login. Home Browse Mouse Test. Mouse Test Test mouse performance Status: Beta. Get project updates, sponsored content from our select partners, and more. Full Name. Phone Number. Job Title. Company Size Company Size: 1 - 25 26 - 99 - - 1, - 4, 5, - 9, 10, - 19, 20, or More. Get notifications on updates for this project.
User Ratings 2. User Reviews Filter Reviews: All. Additional Project Details User Interface. Report inappropriate content. Oh no! Some styles failed to load. Thanks for helping keep SourceForge clean. X You seem to have CSS turned off.If all the relevant buttons the ones you have on your physical mouse light up, then it means that your mouse works and its clicks are registered! Seriously, though, this test helps people test all their different mouse buttons - even the more obscure ones.
Although it's pretty easy to test the right and left buttons buttons 1 and 3 and the scroll wheel, it is sometimes difficult to find a way to test buttons number 2, 4 and 5 on a new mouse. The buttons that this page will check are 1 left mouse button 2 middle mouse button 3 right mouse button 4 side button and 5 side button. On uncoventional mouse layouts these numbers sometimes correspond to different buttons than the ones we mention here.
Not yet, unfortunately. Some older browsers will not be able to record the "event" of some of the mouse clicks, and therefore only some of the buttons could be tested. Mouse Test Tweet. Use this online mouse tester to check a mouse quickly and efficiently.
Point your mouse cursor at the mouse illustration and then spin the scroll wheel on your mouse up and down. If all the relevant mouse keys light up including the arrows for the scroll wheel then, congratulations, your mouse passed the test! If one or more of the relevant keys don't light up then that means that your mouse failed the test! If your mouse didn't pass the test, this will usually be due to one of two possible reasons: Reason 1: An old browser. See discussion below. The short version is that you should try Chrome or Firefox an up-to-date version, too for this test to be able to identify all 5 buttons and the scroll wheel.
Reason 2: A malfunctioning mouse. If you suspect that this may be the case, and you already tried changing browsers, then try this test on a different computer and see what happens. If the same buttons fail to light up, then the mouse is most likely faulty.
More About This Mouse Test:. Why would I need to test my mouse? What mouse buttons can be tested with this test?
Does this test work on all browsers?You can use your mouse, the arrow buttons on the keyboard, or the menu at the left edge of the screen to navigate through the test. Web content is displayed dependent on the color management of the browser. If in doubt, run the test with different browsers. More about EIZO. Use the test pattern to check the image quality. The circles should be complete and round, the lines in the frequency patterns should be clear and defined, and the color gradients should not have any breaks or banding.
Check if there are any defective pixels on the monitor. All of the pixels should be black. If you see a pixel illuminated in color, this indicates a continuously illuminated subpixel.
All of the pixels should be white. If you see a black pixel, this indicates a missing pixel. All of the pixels should be red. If you see a black pixel, this indicates a missing red subpixel. All of the pixels should be green. If you see a black pixel, this indicates a missing green subpixel.
All of the pixels should be blue. If you see a black pixel, this indicates a missing blue subpixel. Assess the uniformity of the image using various grayscales. Check the extent to which your monitor can display similar colors while keeping them differentiable.
You can create two color patches to do so. The more similar the two colors that can still be differentiated from one another are, the better your monitor can differentiate between the colors. This test is also well suited for making a direct visual comparison between two different monitors. Background R:. Rectangle R:. Choose a greater viewing distance to check the display of gradients.
The grayscale image should be reproduced in the overall view without any unnecessary color and with an even gradient, and, at intervals, there should not be any noticeable abrupt changes in brightness between individual grayscales. At a smaller number of intervals, the respective bars should be clearly differentiable from one another.Mouse 101: DPI, Polling Rate, and More!