A Critical Analysis of Homi K. Bhabha shifted the limelight from the binary1 of the colonizer and the colonized to the liminal spaces in-between in the domain of Postcolonial studies.

In Difference, Discrimination, and the Discourse of Colonialism, he stated, "There is always, in Said, the suggestion that colonial power is possessed entirely by the colonizer which is a historical and theoretical simplification" He asserted that colonization is not just a conscious body of knowledge Said's …show more content… However, it is strung together by the common idea of liminality.

The first section draws a parallel between Marlow's lie and Jameson's theory of the postmodern, which Bhabha calls his "theme park".

Both of these, according to Bhabha's framework, are attempts to keep the "conversation of humankind going" and "to preserve the neo-pragmatic universe". He contests Jameson for not appropriating the newness of China but translating it back into certain familiar terms. He destabilizes Jameson's periodization and claims that communities cannot be explained in pre-modernist terms, the history of communities parallels the history of modernity. In the next section, Bhabha scrutinises Jameson's postmodern city through the subject position of migrants and minorities.

He challenges the importance given to class relations in the Marxist discourse by shifting the focus to minority groups. It is important to note that minority is a not just a matter of quantity, but as Deleuze and Guattari point out in "Kafka: Toward a Minor Literature", it is a matter of subject position.

The last section poses the last challenge to Jameson, as Bhabha pitches communities directly against class, using Partha Chatterjee's "A Response Bhabha comments, "Community disturbs the grand globalizing. Show More. Popular Essays. Open Document.With an audience at the British Library, Professor Bhabha gives a short talk and discusses ideas about nations and a postcolonial approach to politics, literature and history. Such an image of the nation — or narration — might seem impossibly romantic and excessively metaphorical, but it is from those traditions of political thought and literary language that the nation emerges as a powerful historical idea in the west.

His works exploring postcolonial theory, contemporary art, and cosmopolitanism, include Nation and Narration and The Location of Culture, which was reprinted as a Routledge Classic in See all episodes from Free Thinking. Shahidha Bari talks to Professor Bhabha about his influence on postcolonial studies. You can download all the past episodes of Radio 3's Free Thinking. Free Thinking. Main content. Listen now. Show more. Producer: Zahid Warley Show less. Available now 44 minutes.

Last on. Tue 28 May More episodes Previous. Landmark: Rachel Carson's Silent Spring. Featured in Arts Creativity, performance, debate. Discussions and talks from the Free Thinking Festival Schedule Podcasts Composers.One of the most widely employed and most disputed terms in postcolonial theoryhybridity commonly refers to the creation of new transcultural forms within the contact zone produced by colonization.

Hybridization takes many forms:linguistic, cultural,political, racial, etc. Linguistic examples include pidgin and creole languages, and these echo the foundational use of the term by the linguist and cultural theorist Mikhail Bakhtin ,who used it to suggest the disruptive and transfiguring power of multivocal language situations and, by extension, of multivocal narratives.

For him, the recognition of this ambivalent space of cultural identity may help us to overcome the exoticism of cultural diversity in favour of the recognition of an empowering hybridity within which cultural difference may operate:. It is significant that the productive capacities of this Third Space have a colonial or postcolonial provenance. For a willingness to descend into that alien territory. Bhabha This use of the term has been widely criticized, since it usually implies negating and neglecting the imbalance and inequality of the power relations it references.

The idea of hybridity also underlies other attempts to stress the mutuality of cultures in the colonial and post-colonial process in expressions of syncreticity, cultural synergy and transculturation. The criticism of the term referred to above stems from the perception that theories that stress mutuality necessarily downplay oppositionality, and increase continuing post-colonial dependence.

There is,however,nothing in the idea of hybridity as such that suggests that mutuality negates the hierarchical nature of the imperial process or that it involves the idea of an equal exchange. This is,however,the way in which some proponents of decolonization and anti-colonialism have interpreted its current usage in colonial discourse theory. It has also been subject to critique as part of a general dissatisfaction with colonial discourse theory on the part of critics such as Chandra Talpade Mohanty, Benita Parry and Aijaz Ahmad.

These critiques stress the textualist and idealist basis of such analysis and point to the fact that they neglect specific local differences.

homi k. bhabha

The assertion of a shared post-colonial condition such as hybridity has been seen as part of the tendency of discourse analysis to de-historicize and de-locate cultures from their temporal, spatial, geographical and linguistic contexts, and to lead to an abstract, globalized concept of the textual that obscures the specificities of particular cultural situations.

Pointing out that the investigation of the discursive construction of colonialism does not seek to replace or exclude other forms such as historical, geographical, economic, military or political, Robert Young suggests that the contribution of colonial discourse analysis, in which concepts such as hybridity are couched.

Young However, Young himself offers a number of objections to the indiscriminate use of the term. Hybridity thus became, particularly at the turn of the century, part of a colonialist discourse of racism. Young draws our attention to the dangers of employing a term so rooted in a previous set of racist assumptions, but he also notes that there is a difference between unconscious processes of hybrid mixture, or creolization, and a conscious and politically motivated concern with the deliberate disruption of homogeneity.

He notes that for Bakhtinfor example, hybridity is politicized, made contestatory, so that it embraces the subversion and challenge of division and separation. Young does, however,warn of the unconscious process of repetition involved in the contemporary use of the term. According to him, when talking about hybridity, contemporary cultural discourse cannot escape the connection with the racial categories of the past in which hybridity had such a clear racial meaning.

This is a subtle and persuasive objection to the concept.Born into a rich aristocratic family, Bhabha went to the University of CambridgeEngland, inoriginally to study mechanical engineeringbut once there he developed a strong interest in physics.

Armed with an honours degree, he started his research in at the Cavendish Laboratories in Cambridge and in obtained a doctorate. With Europe in turmoil, he decided to stay, and at the behest of physicist Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Ramandirector of the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore Bengaluruhe joined the institute as a reader in physics in A visionary, Bhabha realized that the development of nuclear energy was crucial for the future industrial growth of the country, as the available sources of power and energy were limited.

Funded by businessman J. Appointed chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission instituted by the government of India inBhabha was instrumental in setting up the Atomic Energy Establishment in Trombay. All the scientists conducting research in nuclear power and related areas were transferred from TIFR to this institute. Homi Bhabha. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback.

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homi k. bhabha

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree See Article History. Britannica Quiz. Get to Know Asia. Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. India took advantage…. Nuclear energyenergy that is released in significant amounts in processes that affect atomic nuclei, the dense cores of atoms.

It is distinct from the energy of other atomic phenomena such as ordinary chemical reactions, which involve only the orbital electrons of atoms.Pages Page size x pts Year This page intentionally left blank Douglas K. Brumbaugh David Rock Linda S. Brumbaugh Michelle L. Rock LAW. HOMI K.

homi k. bhabha

Bhabha is one of the most important figures in contemporary post-colonial studies. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. The Routledge Critical Thinkers series provides the books you can turn to first when a new name or concept appears in your studies.

The emphasis is on concise, clearly written guides which do not presuppose a specialist knowledge. Although the focus is on particular figures, the series stresses that no critical thinker ever existed in a vacuum but, instead, emerged from a broader intellectual, cultural and social history. These books are necessary for a number of reasons. In his autobiography, Not Entitled, the literary critic Frank Kermode wrote of a time in the s: On beautiful summer lawns, young people lay together all night, recovering from their daytime exertions and listening to a troupe of Balinese musicians.

Under their blankets or their sleeping bags, they would chat drowsily about the gurus of the time…. What they repeated was largely hearsay; hence my lunchtime suggestion, quite impromptu, for a series of short, very cheap books offering authoritative but intelligible introductions to such figures.

But this series reflects a different world from the s. New thinkers have emerged and the reputations of others have risen and fallen, as new research has developed.

New methodologies and challenging ideas have spread through the arts and humanities. The study of literature is no longer—if it ever was—simply the study and evaluation of poems, novels, and plays. It is also the study of the ideas, issues, and difficulties which arise in any literary text and in its interpretation. Other arts and humanities subjects have changed in analogous ways. With these changes, new problems have emerged.

To read only books on a thinker, rather than texts by that thinker, is to deny yourself a chance of making up your own mind. To use a metaphor from the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein —these books are ladders, to be thrown away after you have climbed to the next level.

Finally, these books are necessary because, just as intellectual needs have changed, the education systems around the world—the contexts in which introductory books are usually read—have changed radically, too. What was suitable for the minority higher education system of the s is not suitable for the larger, wider, more diverse, high technology education systems of the twenty-first century.

Homi K. Bhabha

These changes call not just for new, up-to-date introductions but new methods of presentation.To read Fanon is to experience the sense of division that prefigures and fissures — the emergence of a truly radical thought that never dawns without casting an uncertain dark.

Fanon is the purveyor of the transgressive and transitional truth. He may yearn for the total transformation of Man and Society, but he speaks most effectively from the uncertain interstices of historical change: from the area of ambivalence between race and sexuality; out of an unresolved contradiction between culture and class; from deep within the struggle of physic representation and social reality.

Any more than the white man. The psychiatric hospital at Blida-Joinville is one such place where, in the divided world of French Algeria, Fanon discovered the impossibility of his mission as a colonial psychiatrist:.

If psychiatry is the medical technique that aims to enable man no longer to be a stranger to his environment, I owe it to myself to affirm that the Arab, permanently an alien in his own country, lives in a state of absolute depersonalization…The social structure existing in Algeria was hostile to any attempt to put the individual back where he belonged.

The body of his work splits between a Hegelian-Marxist dialectic, a phenomenological affirmation of Self and Other and the psychoanalytic ambivalence of the Unconscious. As Fanon attempts such audacious, often impossible, transformations of truth and value, the jagged testimony of colonial dislocation, its displacement of time and person, its defilement of culture and territory, refuses the ambition of any total theory of colonial oppression.

The Location of Culture

We must attain to a concept of history that is in keeping with this insight. The struggle against colonial oppression not only changes the direction of Western history, but challenges its historicist idea of time as a progressive, ordered whole. If the order of Western historicism is disturbed in the colonial state of emergency, even more deeply disturbed is the social and psychic representation of the human subject.

To this loaded question where cultural alienation bears down on the ambivalence of psychic identification, Fanon responds with an agonizing performance of self-images:. An unfamiliar weight burdened me. In the white world the man of color encounters difficulties in the development of his bodily schema…I was battered down by tom-toms, cannibalism, intellectual deficiency, fetishism, racial defects…I took myself far off from my own presence…What else could it be for me but an amputation, an excision, an hemorrhage hat spattered my whole body with black blood?

From within the metaphor of vision complicit with a Western metaphysic of Man emerges the displacement of the colonial relation. Fanon is not principally posing the question of political oppression as the violation of a human ssence, although he lapses into such a lament in his more existential moments. He is not raising the question of colonial man in the universalist terms of the liberal-humanist How does colonialism deny the Rights of Man?

It is one of the original and disturbing qualities of Black Skin, White Masks that it rarely historicizes the colonial experience. There is no master narrative or realistic perspective that provides a background of social and historical facts against which emerge the problems of the individual or collective psyche. It is through image and fantasy — those orders that figure transgressively on the borders of history and the unconscious — that Fanon most profoundly evokes the colonial condition.

In articulating the problem of colonial cultural alienation in the psychoanalytic language of demand and desire, Fanon radically questions the formation of both individual and social authority as they come to be developed in the discourse of social sovereignty. The social virtues of historical rationality, cultural cohesion, the autonomy of individual consciousness assume an immediate, Utopian identity with the subjects on whom they confer a civil status.

The civil status is the ultimate expression of the innate ethical and rational bent of the human mind; the social instinct is the progressive destiny of human nature, the necessary transition from Nature to Culture. The direct access from individual interests to social authority is objectified in the representative structure of a General Will — Law or Culture — where Psyche and Society mirror each other, transparently translating their difference, without loss, into a historical totality.

Forms of oscial and psychic alienation and aggression — madness, self-hate, treason, violence — can never be acknowledged as determinate and constitutive conditions of civil authority, or as the ambivalent effects of the social instinct itself.

homi k. bhabha

They are always explained away as alien presences, occlusions of the historical progress, the ultimate misrecognition of Man. For Fanon such a myth of Man and Society is fundamentally undermined in the colonial situation. The representative figure of such a perversion, I want to suggest, is the image of post-Enlightenment tethered to, not confronted by, his dark reflection, the shadow of colonized man, that splits his presence distorts his outline, breaches his boundaries, repeats his action at a distance, disturbs and divides the very time of his being.

The ambivalent identification of the racist world — moving on two planes without being in the least embarrassed by it, as Sartre says of the anti-Semitic consciousness — turns on the idea of man s his alienated image; not Self and Other but the otherness of the Self inscribed in the perverse palimpsest of colonial identity.

This transference speaks otherwise.Goodreads helps you keep track of books you want to read. Want to Read saving…. Want to Read Currently Reading Read.

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Homi K. Bhabha

Open Preview See a Problem? Details if other :. Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. The Location of Culture by Homi K.

Rethinking questions of identity, social agency and national affiliation, Bhabha provides a working, if controversial, theory of cultural hybridity - one that goes far beyond previous attempts by others. In The Location of Culturehe uses concepts such as mimicry, interstice, hybridity, and liminality to argue that cultural production is always most productive where it is Rethinking questions of identity, social agency and national affiliation, Bhabha provides a working, if controversial, theory of cultural hybridity - one that goes far beyond previous attempts by others.

In The Location of Culturehe uses concepts such as mimicry, interstice, hybridity, and liminality to argue that cultural production is always most productive where it is most ambivalent. Speaking in a voice that combines intellectual ease with the belief that theory itself can contribute to practical political change, Bhabha has become one of the leading post-colonial theorists of this era.

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